CHLOROPHYTA MULTISELULER. traits, habitat, cell structure, reproduction, classification and role in life


Chlorophyta multicellular

Well this time I will menshare Chlorophyta multicellular because the previous post I have explained that unicellular Cholorophyta multicellular there is a unicellular and commonly called with phytoplankton previously had discussed and there are multicellular and commonly called algae. Algae usually live attached to a particular substrate and can grow up to reach tens of meters.
Chlorohyta or green algae are distinguished algal groups based on their dye or pigmentation. This green algae is divided into two phyla: chlorophyta and charophyta.

Well we will learn to its General Character

Green algae is one of several algae other types of algae have different pigment chlorophyll. Green algae are single-celled and some are multicelled in the form of yarn, sheets or colonies. This green algae is moving somewhere else, some are settling somewhere.

As the previous post algae is the most algae compared to other algae types. Characteristic of green color obtained from chlorophyll a and b so that more dominant than xantofil dll.


Habitat is the same as unicellular chlorophyta he lives in sea water, brackish, fresh water. Types that live in fresh water, cosmopolitan, especially living in places with enough light such as ponds, lakes, puddles, green algae is also found in the semi-aquatic environment that is on the rocks, moist soil and moist tree trunk. Some of its members live in water floating or drifting, some living as plankton. This is what distinguishes a bit with this unicellular chlorophyta of this type there are living attached to plants or animals.

Cell Structure

multicellular chlorophyta cell structure

The cell wall is composed of two layers, the inner layer is cellulose and outer by pectin. But some of its volvocales wall algae do not contain cellulose, but are composed by glycoproteins. The caulerpales cell wall contains xylan or mannan.
The core of clorophyta is prokaryotes and some have eukaryotes. The core is shrouded in the nuclear membrane of the nucleus and chromatin. The core is generally single but some have more than one core.

breeding of multicellular chlorophyta

Breeding on Chlorophyta occurs in 3 ways:

1. Vegetally

On this with fragmentation and cell division.

2. Sexually

- Conjugation is breeding by mating Spirogyra sp
- Isogami is a fusion of two gametes of the same shape and size.
- Anisogami is a fusion of two gametes that are not the same size.
- Oogami is the fusion of two gametes that one small and move (as sperm) the other large immobile (as an egg)
Some examples of sexual reproduction:
- Isogami: Chlorococcum, Chlamydomonos, Hydrodictyon
- Anisogami: Chlamydomonas, Ulva
- Oogami: Chlamydomonas, Valva, Spirogya, Aedogonium

3. Asexually

Asexual breeding may occur with the formation of:
- Zoospores are cell berflagel 2 for example Chlamydomonos
- Aplanospores ie spores that do not move for example Chlorococcum
- Autospora is aplanospora which is similar to stem cell for example Chlorella


a. Chlorophyta in the form of a non-moving colony

Example: Hydrodictyon
Hydrodictyon is found in fresh water and its colony is shaped like a net. He is great with the naked eye we can see it. Vegetative reproduction with zoospores and fragmentation. Fragmentation is done by removing some of its colonies and forming a new colony. while generative reproduction by conjugation.

b. Chlorophyta-shaped colonies can move
Example: Volvox
Volvox is found in freshwater, spherical colonies of between 500 and 5000 pieces. Each cell has 2 flagellas and an eye spot. Asexual reproduction with fragmentation and sex with conjugated gamete cells.

c. Chlorophyta is a yarn

1. Spyrogyra

The body shape is like a thread, in each cell there is a spiral chloroplast and a nucleus. Vegetative reproduction with fragmentation, while sexual reproduction by conjugation. as for the conjugation steps among others

Two threads are close together, adjacent cells bump into each other's bulges. The second end of the touching bulge melts together into a conjugate channel. Through the channel there was a flow of protoplasm from one cell to another. the two plasmas are fused, called plasmogamy events and soon followed by a core called cariogami. The melting results form diploid zygospores. the zygospora undergoes meiosis and in the appropriate place develops into a new haploid spirogyra yarn.

2. Oedogonium

This algae is a yarn, found in water atawar and attached to the bottom of the water. vegetative reproduction performed by each cell produces a much flagella zoospora.
Generative reproduction is one of the threads to form the male genitalia (antiridium) and produces male gametes (spermatozoid). On the other thread forms a female genitalia called oogonium. Oogonium will produce a female gamete (ovum). Tozoid sperm fertilize the ovum and form a zygote. Zygote will grow to form an individual.
d. Chlorophyta-shaped sheet


1. Ulva

The algae is found at the bottom of the ocean waters and attached to the base, a leaf-like shape. develop vegetatively by producing spores and spores grown into haploid ulva (n), haploid ulva called haploid gametophytes. Then generatively produce male gametes and female gametes. meeting male gametes and female gametes will produce a zygote (Z2n). The zygote develops into a diploid ulva called sporophyte. Furthermore, sporophytes form haploid spores after undergoing meiosis. Furthermore, it undergoes mitosis and produces haploid gametophytes.

2. Chara

Chara lives in fresh water primarily attached to rocks. The shape of the talus is like a tall plant, resembling a stem, which is segmented and branched, small in size. In the field there are nukula and globula. Inside the nucula is arkegonium and produces an ovum. Inside the globula is an anterodium that produces spermatozoid. The spermatozoid will fertilize the ovum and produce a cell-shaped zigospora. On vegetative reproduction is done by fragmentation.

Another classification

a. Based on the body structure

Green algae have varying body structures both in size and in shape and in the arrangement. There is a Chlorophyta consisting of small cells that are colonies in the form of yarn that branches or not, some are forming colonies that resemble high-level plant cormus. Of the many variations of green algae are grouped as follows:

1. Senobium colony is a colony that has a certain number of cells so it has a relatively fixed form, for example: Volvox, Pandorina.

2. Colonies are unfit, eg: Tetraspora

3. Shaped - non-branched filaments, eg: Ulothrix, Oedogonium

b. Based Branching filaments

 example: Chladhopora, Pithopora

1. Hetemtricus, ie branched filaments which are divided into prostrate and erect parts, eg Stigeoclonium

2. Foliaceus or parenkimatis, ie filaments that divide the vegetative cells occur more than one field, for example: Ulva

3. Tubular, which is a talus that has many nuclei without a transverse bulkhead, for example: Caulerpa

c. Based on his motion tools

1. Movement with flagella

Flagela in the Chlorochyceae class is always the type of whiplash (akronematic) and the same length (isokon), except in the nation oedogoniales, has stefanokon type. Flagella is associated with a very fine structure called the neuromotor apparatus. Each flagella consists of axonema composed by 9 dupet microtubules surrounding the center of which there are 2 microtubule singlets. This structure is known as the 9 + 2 arrangement. The flagella is surrounded by a plasma shroud.

2. Movements with mucus secretions

In chlorophyta there is movement caused by a light stimulus that is suspected by the presence of mucus secretion through the porous cell wall in the apical part of the cell. During the forward movement the pole part swings from one side to the other so that the mucus of the back is like winding.

The role of Chlorophyta in life

1. As a single-cell protein source example of Chlorela sp
2. As a feeding example Volvox sp as a vegetable
3. As a plankton, is an important component in the food chain in freshwater
4. Produce O2 (oxygen) and the result of photositensis required by other animals to breathe


Hasanuddin dan Mulyadi. 2014. Botani Tumbuhan Rendah. Banda Aceh: University Syiah Kuala Pers.

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